Friday, May 22, 2020
When Romes founder established the calendarHe determined thered be ten months in every year.You knew more about swords than stars, Romulus, surely,Since conquering neighbours was your chief concern.Yet theres a logic that might have possessed him,Caesar, and that might well justify his error.He held that the time it takes for a mothers wombTo produce a child, was sufficient for his year.Ovid Fasti Book 1, A. S. Kline translation The early Roman calendar had only 10 months, with December (Latin decem10) the last month of the year and March the first. The month we call July, the fifth month, was number-named Quintilis (Latin quin-5) until it was renamed Julius or Iulius for Julius Caesar. In The Pre-Caesarian Calendar: Facts and Reasonable Guesses, The Classical Journal, Vol. 40, No. 2 (Nov. 1944), pp. 65-76, 20th-century Classical scholar H.J. Rose explains the 10-month calendar: The earliest Romans of whom we have any knowledge did as many other peoples have done. They counted the moons during the interesting part of the year, when farmwork and fighting were going on, and then waited till the dull times of winter were over and the spring was fairly set in (as it is by March in those latitudes of Europe) to begin counting again. Februarius (February) was not part of the original (pre-Julian, Romulean) calendar, but was added (with a variable number of days), as the month preceding the beginning of the year. Sometimes there was an additional intercalary month. [See Intercalation. Also see: The Origin of the Pre-Julian Calendar, by Joseph Dwight; The Classical Journal, Vol. 41, No. 6 (Mar. 1946), pp. 273-275.] Februarius was a month for purification, as the Lupercalia festival suggests. Originally, Februarius may have had 23 days. In time, the calendar was standardized so that all 12 months had 29 or 31 days, except for Februarius which had 28. Later, Julius Caesar re-standardized the calendar to line up with the seasons. See Julian Calendar Reform. Source [URL web.archive.org/web/20071011150909/http://www.12x30.net/earlyrom.html] Bill Hollons Roman Calendar Page. Plutarch on the Calendar Here is a passage Plutarchs life of Numa Pompilius on the Roman calendar. Sections about the Roman month Februarius (February) are highlighted. He attempted, also, the formation of a calendar, not with absolute exactness, yet not without some scientific knowledge. During the reign of Romulus, they had let their months run on without any certain or equal term; some of them contained twenty days, others thirty-five, others more; they had no sort of knowledge of the inequality in the motions of the sun and moon; they only kept to the one rule that the whole course of the year contained three hundred and sixty days. Numa, calculating the difference between the lunar and the solar year at eleven days, for that the moon completed her anniversary course in three hundred and fifty-four days, and the sun in three hundred and sixty- five, to remedy this incongruity doubled the eleven days, and every other year added an intercalary month, to follow February, consisting of twenty-two days, and called by the Romans the month Mercedinus. This amendment, however, itself, in course of time, came to need other amendments. He also altered the order of the months; for March, which was reckoned the first, he put into the third place; and January, which was the eleventh, he made the first; and February, which was the twelfth and last, the second. Many will have it, that it was Numa, also, who added the two months of January and February; for in the beginning they had had a year of ten months; as there are barbarians who count only three; the Arcadians, in Greece, had but four; the Acarnanians, six. The Egyptian year at first, they say, was of one month; afterwards, of four; and so, though they live in the newest of all countries, they have the credit of being a more ancient nation than any; and reckon, in their genealogies, a prodigious number of years, counting months, that is, as years. That the Romans, at first, comprehended the whole year within ten, and not twelve months, plainly appears by the name of the last, December, meaning the tenth month; and that March was the first is likewise evident, for the fifth month af ter it was called Quintilis, and the sixth Sextilis, and so the rest; whereas, if January and February had, in this account, preceded March, Quintilis would have been fifth in name and seventh in reckoning. It was also natural, that March, dedicated to Mars, should be Romuluss first, and April, named from Venus, or Aphrodite, his second month; in it they sacrifice to Venus, and the women bathe on the calends, or first day of it, with myrtle garlands on their heads. But others, because of its being p and not ph, will not allow of the derivation of this word from Aphrodite, but say it is called April from aperio, Latin for to open, because that this month is high spring, and opens and discloses the buds and flowers. The next is called May, from Maia, the mother of Mercury, to whom it is sacred; then June follows, so called from Juno; some, however, derive them from the two ages, old and young, majores being their name for older, and juniores for younger men. To the other months they g ave denominations according to their order; so the fifth was called Quintilis, Sextilis the sixth, and the rest, September, October, November, and December. Afterwards Quintilis received the name of Julius, from Caesar who defeated Pompey; as also Sextilis that of Augustus, from the second Caesar, who had that title. Domitian, also, in imitation, gave the two other following months his own names, of Germanicus and Domitianus; but, on his being slain, they recovered their ancient denominations of September and October. The two last are the only ones that have kept their names throughout without any alteration. Of the months which were added or transposed in their order by Numa, February comes from februa; and is as much as Purification month; in it they make offerings to the dead, and celebrate the Lupercalia, which, in most points, resembles a purification. January was so called from Janus, and precedence given to it by Numa before March, which was dedicated to the god Mars; because , as I conceive, he wished to take every opportunity of intimating that the arts and studies of peace are to be preferred before those of war. Suggested Reading Why Rome FellNorse Story of CreationNaqsh-i-Rustam: The Tomb of Darius the Great
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Haiti is located in the Western Hemisphere below the equator. The country of Haiti is the western half of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. East of Haiti, sharing the same island, is the Dominican Republic. HaitiÃ¢â¬â¢s capital is Port-au-Prince. While Haiti is not a large country, its population is just over ten million people. The people of Haiti speak French and Haitian Creole, a form of French. Natural disasters have harmed the environment and the people in Haiti in recent years. Haiti has survived a lot of trauma, especially along the costal regions. The country has a long journey of recovery ahead while Haiti works through the ramifications of deforestation, earthquakes, and poor water systems. Haiti is the poorest country inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Yasmine Shamsie, the author of Ã¢â¬Å"HaitiÃ¢â¬â¢s Post-Earthquake Transformation: What of Agriculture and Rural Development?Ã¢â¬ writes: TheÃ¢â¬ ¦global food crisis, in 2008, caused HaitiÃ¢â¬â¢s food prices to spiral up, leading to severe hardship and political unrest. Agriculture and food security suddenly became central concerns. This was followedÃ¢â¬ ¦by the 2010 earthquake, which devastated the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s capital, producing a more powerful incentive to generate economic opportunities outside the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince. (p. 134) Any government would find addressing a global food crisis in order to feed their people difficult. An earthquake is an event which challenges government leaders in any country. Any one of these events would be hard enough to handle by itself, but the people had an even harder time recovering because these events happened within two years of each other. The country did not have time to recover from the food crisis before dealing with the earthquake fallout. Natural resources or industries were needed to improve their situation. There was, and is, a great need to enhance economic opportunities for the people of Haiti. Creating products to export would ameliorate Haitian economy. Some products they currently export are coffee, vanilla, machetes, and souvenirs. Vendors in souvenir shops sell paintings on rocks, cigarettes, wall paintings, and clothing. The government regulates the exports which bring money into the country.Show MoreRelatedHaiti s Recovery After The Earthquake857 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages HaitiÃ¢â¬â¢s Recovery After The Earthquake Five years after the 7.0 magnitude earthquake, Haiti is rebuilding gradually. Haiti, being one of the poorest countries, was always in need of improvement but the 2010 earthquake added to their concerns. With over 300,000 lives lost, houses, school and businesses destroyed and family and friends mourning, the country had no hope. Haiti started receiving help immediately all over the world after the earthquake. Food, medication and tents were sent to the countryRead More Danticats The Farming of Bones and George Orwells Animal Farm1473 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAtlantic Ocean and he named it Hispaniola. Hispaniola was inhabited by the Arawaks, and they were the ones responsible for later giving Haiti its name. Haiti soon became one of FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s most prosperous colonies in the AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s, and it also became one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading chief coffee and sugar producers. Around the 18th century settlement began to expand here, and Haiti was settled by Creoles, slaves, Fre nchmen, and freed blacks. Around this time, the Haitian society was undergoing some tough timesRead MoreHuman trafficking in Haiti735 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDespite the fact that there is some governmental action towards human trafficking, it still exists in Haiti at a high rate. There are many factors contributing towards the continued existence of human trafficking in the country of Haiti; there are local, as well as outside factors that have helped to increase it in the region. Some of the local factors are; poverty, unemployment, illiteracy and poor education, a history of physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, drug abuse, gang membership, andRead MoreThe Death Toll Of Haiti933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIt was typical late afternoon in Haiti capital of Port-au-Prince. People were strolling the streets, and local vendors were selling various goods at the Port-au-Prince historic Iron Market. Then at 4:53 pm on January 12, 2010 a 7.0 magnitude hit Haiti. Haiti had not seen a major ea rthquake like this in almost 200 years. People scrambled through the streets as the ground roared knocking down huge stone and brick building onto the streets of Port-au-Prince. An eyewitness describes the moment that theRead MoreCultural Diversity Project : Xavier Smith1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe first question I ask was Ã¢â¬Å"what is your full name and does it have a special meaning to it?Ã¢â¬ He told me that his full name is Xavier Smith and that his name is spelt differently in Haiti language, it is spelt Xaviur instead of the American way Xavier. I ask him why does he not use the spelling of the name from Haiti and he said that it is because people usually do not pronounce his name correctly the way how he say it people so, he just decide to go with the how his name is spelt in America. TheRead MoreIs The Public Bad Side Of Haiti?1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Whenever you hear the word Haiti the first things that come to mind are poverty, corruption, earthquake, third wor ld country, political instabilities or sometimes danger zone. Haiti is known for their hardships, their downfalls and their catastrophes but never for their beauty. Who would when all the media does is show the public the bad side of Haiti? We cannot deny that those aspects of Haiti arenÃ¢â¬â¢t true but we can open our minds and go deeper to see Haiti for what it really is, for itÃ¢â¬â¢s historyRead MoreThe Lost Country : Haiti1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Lost Country: Haiti The Caribbean country, Haiti, is known to be one of the poorest countries in the western hemisphere. Despite the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth in natural resources, the people of Haiti have been plagued by decades of unstable government, corrupt leaders, and debilitating natural disasters. The small country was once known to be the wealthiest country in the West Indies. Dominated by its European oppressor, France, Haiti thrived in production during the slaving era. Haiti became globallyRead MoreEssay about Feed The Children710 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCan you imagine getting attacked in your sleep by rats? Many child slaves in Haiti awake to such horrific conditions. Haitian children are often sent to live with wealthier or less poor relatives in return for food, shelter, education, and a better life in return for tasks performed. But many are forced into domestic slavery or restavek. Restavek is a common practice of Haitian society. Some as young as three are beaten, forced to do anythi ng asked, request nothing, speak only when spoken toRead MoreThe Struggle of the People of Haiti in Edwidge Danticats Novel Krik? Krak!1204 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEdwidge Danticats novel Krik? Krak! reflects the struggling people of Haiti from the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s to the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. Danticat, born in Haiti, grew up hearing stories about her homelands past. She learned about the hardships and struggles her elders went through in Haiti. Danticat composed nine short stories that reveal the unmasking truth of what it was like in the previous generations to keep the history of her home country alive. Within the characters in these stories, she describes the inequality, crueltyRead MoreHuman Rights Violations In Haiti Essay1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHaiti is plagued by crime and chaos within its streets, homes, and even its government. There is widespread slavery, kidnapping, lack of security, lack of access to education, and police brutality. Children are taken into slavery at extremely young ages. As early as three years old children are beaten, forced to do anything asked, request nothing, speak only when spoken to, and display no emotion. They are forced to act like mindless robots and it becomes all they know since they are taken at such
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
How might Ã¢â¬ËNaturalismÃ¢â¬â¢ be defined within theatrical contexts? Movement in theatre developed late 19th century, presenting ordinary life as accurately as possible, influenced by novelists and playwrights such as Ibsen and Emile Zola. The idea of naturalistic plays was to portray harsh and gritty subject matters, which would emphasize the wrongs in contemporary life which would often be frowned upon and alienate 19th-century audiences. However, by seeing the wrongs in society there is a believe that people will try and better themselves. We will write a custom essay sample on How might Ã¢â¬ËNaturlismÃ¢â¬â¢ be defined within theatrical context or any similar topic only for you Order Now Naturalism existed only in itÃ¢â¬â¢s historical moments Theatre imitating life. Naturalism brought science into the game, with more electricity in theatres, removal of audience, putting them in the dark as if they were eavesdropping. Importance of everyday and ordinary. Potential tool for improving humanity by showing the wrongs. Brought in the fourth wall, analytical distance. extending the idea to the imaginary boundary between the audience and the stage. Character is more important than plot/action. The model of theatre as scientific ideas and the idea that human beings are distinguished by society, like showing the ubject as a product of social forces. Playing around with that idea, like Emile Zola did in his play Ã¢â¬Å"Miss JulieÃ¢â¬ dropping a high class girl into a test tube with a servant (lower class) of particular type/ character and see what happens. Playwrights tried to get as far away from the theatrical side of plays, by using techniques such as making real time and fictional time the same. It would always be very accurately documented, especially social detail. Lineage or Heredity always played a big part and were controlled by the environments which would explain the ehavior and status of the characters. Naturalism showed a slice of life as it really is, without putting up a show for the audience you see a gritty unpleasant side of life which pays very close attention to detail and behavior, often including battle of sexes, Heredity or Lineage and lots of psychological detail about why the characters are doing what they are doing taking their past and course through life to this point in time into consideration. Which leaves the audience to study the characters outside of what they see in front of them. Reveals the private side of life. Naturalism played a great role in later theatre evolving to Hypernaturalism and symbolism. Theatre of Naturalism will open up new perspectives for anyone interested in theory or theatre, whether scholars or the wider theatre-loving or performing public. Naturalism is a torm ot Realism, but was a more scientific approach than realism which is interested in cause and effect Ã¢â¬â both inherited and environmental Human psychology Has true view of the outside world but only focuses on whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on the inside even though characters come and go How to cite How might Ã¢â¬ËNaturlismÃ¢â¬â¢ be defined within theatrical context, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
Have you ever had a secret so huge and heart breaking? You lied about it to hide the truth from others, especially your parents. Some secrets can be painful or a surprise to others. I think my mom knew my secret but was in denial and was waiting for me to say it. Besides, since I thought she already knew I just ignored ever telling her until I left home for college. You want to know what my secret is. My secret is that I am a lesbian and have a girlfriend. The time I finally told my parents that I am a lesbian were when my girlfriend told her mom. It wasnt like I sat down and said Im gay. I waited and just told my mom that I have a girlfriend. Yes, she was disappointed. She was so mad and hurt that it even hurt me. During the months afterwards I felt bad when I told my mom that my girlfriend and I were going out because she didnt like it. We will write a custom essay sample on The Big Secret or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In addition to that, I felt bad because I am my moms only child and she wants me to have kids and be married to a man. However, thats not what I want. I dont want to get married to a man and dont even know if I want to get married to a woman. Marriage itself is a huge step no matter what the gender is. I usually lied to them on where I w as going or doing because I felt like I already embarrassed them. Sometimes I feel like my grandma is ashamed of my being gay because she doesnt want me telling anyone in school or even our family. She says shes not ashamed but I doubt that at times. Its like shes embarrassed but I mean I dont blame her because its not something every parent wants. At one time their anger and pain got to the point where they made me take my orientation off on my myspace that said Lesbian. This might be funny or dumb to you and I know you are probably thinking, oh thats it. Well this wasnt an easy secret that my parents can forgive you for or leave it alone. Although I was scared to tell her that I am gay I am scared to tell her that I might want to adopt. Yes, my grandma is still praying for me to find a nice young man to get married to and give her great children. Telling them that Ive been thinking of adoption just might make the situation worse than what it is. Its already weird and awkward to talk to your parents about sex or being in a relationship. Now imagine trying to talk to them about a relationship where the other person is the same gender as you. From time to time grandma might bring up how GOD didnt make it for woman and woman to be together but I told her that I believe that GOD wants to be happy which I am. I do believe that it is possible for gay people to go to heaven. Now as time flew by my parents have tried to accept it but I understand it is hard for them. Grandma says I have changed since I dont talk to her about everything I do and she says that Im becoming grown. Telling her everything I do is asking for too much from me. I have to grow up but I dont plan on doing this too soon. I want to grow up being independent, achieving my goals, and learning new things every day. As for my grandfather, I havent told him and I dont think I ever will. I am terrified and scared that he might just stop talking to me. The other day he had said the reason why we moved out of Adams Morgan in DC was because of gay people. I do feel like I am a disappointment to my parents but I am always being known as the girl in the family who is bragged about. My parents brags to everyone how well I do in school, how I have traveled to England and France, how I am in the band, and how I have a car and job. I dont want them to do this too much because Im not the type of person that wants or needs everyones praise or boost. I am the type of person that follows my heart, and do what I say I am going to do or what I believe is right. Most of my family knows and really doesnt have a problem with it. They just tell me to be careful, or if its what I want, they are not mad. However as time flies, my parents have become a little easy on me with that heartbreaking secret I held for so lon g. Now they just accept it, but from time to time my mom still brings up the question of if she will ever become a grandmother. I am happy that I told them because it was the responsible thing to do. Besides if you define gay, it will say happy and happy is something that I really am. Im happy I told them and Im happy of who and what I am.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
The Internet as Social Media Connectivity and Immediacy essayEssay Writing Service The Internet as Social Media: Connectivity and Immediacy essay The Internet as Social Media: Connectivity and Immediacy essayÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Does the availability and use of social media on the Internet really provide businesses with new and different useful information? Ã Social media can be viewed as an effective tool to promote business. YouTube and other social media platforms provide massive opportunities for advertising campaigns, which help to attract more and more customers. However, social media may have negative impact on businesses as well, especially on business reputation. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"with the web, opinions, facts, truth and lies can spread across the world as fast as a rumor or piece of gossip might have passed among the inhabitants of a small town 100 years agoÃ¢â¬ (Newson et al., 2009, p. 171).Ã The case of Dave Carroll, a young Canadian singer, who travelled with his band from Toronto Canada to Nebraska, and faced serious problems with his baggage, hurt the United Airline s reputation to a great extent. Dave Carrol used social media to inform others about the United Airlines customer service, and he succeeded. Careless baggage handlers managed to break Dave CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s guitar which cost $3.500. United Airlines refused to reimburse DaveÃ¢â¬â¢s repair bill of $1.200. Dave CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s song Ã¢â¬Å"United Breaks GuitarsÃ¢â¬ , which was posted on YouTube in the form of a humorous video clip, had more than 3 million viewers within two weeks. According to research, Ã¢â¬Å"by mid-2011the YouTube clip had accumulated well over 10 million viewsÃ¢â¬ (Fritz, 2012, p. 53). Today people have an opportunity to share their problems with others via social media platforms. Many customers use social media to voice their disagreement with customer services, hurting the reputation of many highly acclaimed companies. So, the availability and use of social media really provide businesses with new and different useful information, including negative comments and critical review about products and services, which may hurt the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To start with, social media platforms play an important role in business communication, proving massive opportunities for customers to share their opinions about products and services. Social networking sites, YouTube, Twitter, blogging and other types of social media creates a serious threat to business reputation. The term Ã¢â¬Å"social mediaÃ¢â¬ is used to Ã¢â¬Å"describe online tools and utilities that allow communication of information online and participation and collaborationÃ¢â¬ (Newson et al., 2009, p. 49). Today social media tools make it difficult for businesses to monitor online reputation. Customers use social media to tell online users about their dealing with this or that business organization. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"these online communications can be anything from a few comments to even a full scale campaign agai nst a businessÃ¢â¬ (Newson et al., 2009, p. 172). There are many examples of negative impact of social media on businesses. 40 % of the well-known marketing brands had negative commentaries or critical reviews of customers, based on the online monitoring survey (Newson et al., 2009, p. 172).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Besides the above mentioned facts, social media platforms influence competitiveness of businesses on the market. Many companies have established and implemented effective strategies to become Ã¢â¬Å"first movers in social media and developed insights as how consumers think and behave about their products and servicesÃ¢â¬ (Rajagopal, 2013, p. 127). Many companies face certain challenges caused by social media power regarding the sustainability of market competition. Many companies used negative commentaries of consumers about their competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ products and services to become more successful on the competitive market. Competition is influence d by social position of businesses. In other words, social status among business organizations reflects their social position on the market, measured by business relationships among business organizations. Social media platforms may shape the way that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors may use to become more successful on the competitive market.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In addition, negative word of mouth communication by means of social media platforms reduces sales rate. When consumers are not satisfied with some product or service, they have an opportunity to relieve their frustration, making efforts to convince others about the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s failures (Beal Strauss, 2009). These consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ complaints about the quality of products and services may be crucial in the sales rate of businesses because consumers try to find other companies, more trustworthy and more competitive ones.Ã Many companies are concerned about the effects of the negative word of mouth communication because it can go global, influencing the overall productivity of the company on the market. The information on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and other major social media sites requires the proper control and feedback (Fritz, 2012). Thus, some specific strategies and effective tactics are necessary to be focused on building business.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Nevertheless, some experts argue that the use of social media does not have a strong impact on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation and competitive advantage. The success of any company on the competitive market depends on the level of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ trust. There are many ways to obtain good reputation and keep it without effort, e.g. powerful advertising campaigns on TV, radio, print media, reduced prices, employee benefits, etc. Social media tools, such as YouTube, Twitter, Facebook and some other well-known platforms will fail to completely destroy the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s values (Fritz, 2012; N ewson et al., 2009).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã But despite these contradictions, social media may have a harmful impact with negative customer opinion regarding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products or services, providing businesses with new and different useful information. Although many companies have developed their reputation management plans, which integrate the application of both offline and online procedures, social media platforms, like YouTube, create a serious threat to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. It would be better for any company that is criticized in the social media to give a prompt and adequate response (Rajagopal, 2013). Social media can teach a customer service lesson; therefore any company should be ready to respond adequately (Rajagopal, 2013).Ã Public relations should work with customer service department to ensure that the company is ready to give responses to consumers.ConclusionÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Thus, it is necessa ry to conclude that the availability and use of social media on the Internet really provide businesses with new and different useful information. In many cases, this information is negative and has an adverse impact on the development of businesses. As a result, many companies have to develop and implement the proper strategies aimed at reducing the negative effects of the use of social media platforms by consumers. In many cases, consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ comments on blogs, YouTube video clips, and other negative comments about products or services are discussed by managers and the proper changes in strategic directions are made to address the issues of concern, e.g. poor customer services, low quality of products, etc.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
How Quantum Levitation Works Some videos on the internet show something called quantum levitation. What is this? How does it work? Will we be able to have flying cars? Quantum levitation as it is called is a process where scientists use the properties of quantum physics to levitate an object (specifically, a superconductor) over a magnetic source (specifically a quantum levitation track designed for this purpose). The Science of Quantum Levitation The reason this works is something called the Meissner effect and magnetic flux pinning. The Meissner effect dictates that a superconductor in a magnetic field will always expel the magnetic field inside of it, and thus bend the magnetic field around it. The problem is a matter of equilibrium. If you just placed a superconductor on top of a magnet, then the superconductor would just float off the magnet, sort of like trying to balance two south magnetic poles of bar magnets against each other. The quantum levitation process becomes far more intriguing through the process of flux pinning, or quantum locking, as described by Tel Aviv University superconductor group in this way: Superconductivity and magnetic field [sic] do not like each other. When possible, the superconductor will expel all the magnetic field from inside. This is the Meissner effect. In our case, since the superconductor is extremely thin, the magnetic field DOES penetrates. However, it does that in discrete quantities (this is quantum physics after all! ) called flux tubes.Inside each magnetic flux tube superconductivity is locally destroyed. The superconductor will try to keep the magnetic tubes pinned in weak areas (e.g. grain boundaries). Any spatial movement of the superconductor will cause the flux tubes to move. In order to prevent that the superconductor remains trapped in midair.The terms quantum levitation and quantum locking were coined for this process by Tel Aviv University physicist Guy Deutscher, one of the lead researchers in this field. The Meissner Effect Lets think about what a superconductor really is: its a material in which electrons are able to flow very easily. Electrons flow through superconductors with no resistance, so that when magnetic fields get close to a superconducting material, the superconductor forms small currents on its surface, canceling out the incoming magnetic field. The result is that the magnetic field intensity insideÃ of the surface of the superconductor is precisely zero. If you mapped the net magnetic field lines it would show that theyre bending around the object. But how does this make it levitate? When a superconductor is placed on a magnetic track, the effect is that the superconductor remains above the track, essentially being pushed away by the strong magnetic field right at the tracks surface. There is a limit to how far above the track it can be pushed, of course, since the power of the magnetic repulsion has to counteract the force of gravity. A disk of a type-I superconductor will demonstrate the Meissner effect in its most extreme version, which is called perfect diamagnetism, and will not contain any magnetic fields inside the material. Itll levitate, as it tries to avoid any contact with the magnetic field. The problem with this is that the levitation isnt stable. The levitating object wont normally stay in place. (This same process has been able to levitate superconductors within a concave, bowl-shaped lead magnet, in which the magnetism is pushing equally on all sides.) In order to be useful, the levitation needs to be a bit more stable. Thats where quantum locking comes into play. Flux Tubes One of the key elements of the quantum locking process is the existence of these flux tubes, called a vortex. If a superconductor is very thin, or if the superconductor is a type-II superconductor, it costs the superconductor less energy to allow some of the magnetic field to penetrate the superconductor. Thats why the flux vortices form, in regions where the magnetic field is able to, in effect, slip through the superconductor. In the case described by the Tel Aviv team above, they were able to grow a special thin ceramic film over the surface of a wafer. When cooled, this ceramic material is a type-II superconductor. Because its so thin, the diamagnetism exhibited isnt perfect ... allowing for the creation of these flux vortices passing through the material. Flux vortices can also form in type-II superconductors, even if the superconductor material isnt quite so thin. The type-II superconductor can be designed to enhance this effect, called enhanced flux pinning. Quantum Locking When the field penetrates into the superconductor in the form of a flux tube, it essentially turns off the superconductor in that narrow region. Picture each tube as a tiny non-superconductor region within the middle of the superconductor. If the superconductor moves, the flux vortices will move. Remember two things, though: the flux vortices are magnetic fieldsthe superconductor will create currents to counter magnetic fields (i.e. the Meissner effect) The very superconductor material itself will create a force to inhibit any sort of motion in relation to the magnetic field. If you tilt the superconductor, for example, you will lock or trap it into that position. Itll go around a whole track with the same tilt angle. This process of locking the superconductor in place by height and orientation reduces any undesirable wobble (and is also visually impressive, as shown by Tel Aviv University.) Youre able to re-orient the superconductor within the magnetic fieldÃ because your hand can apply far more force and energy than what the field is exerting. Other Types of Quantum Levitation The process of quantum levitation described above is based on magnetic repulsion, but there are other methods of quantum levitation that have been proposed, including some based on the Casimir effect. Again, this involves some curious manipulation of the electromagnetic properties of the material, so it remains to be seen how practical it is. The Future of Quantum Levitation Unfortunately, the current intensity of this effect is such that we wont have flying cars for quite some time. Also, it only works over a strong magnetic field, meaning that wed need to build new magnetic track roads. However, there are already magnetic levitation trains in Asia which use this process, in addition to the more traditional electromagnetic levitation (maglev) trains. Another useful application is the creation of truly frictionless bearings. The bearing would be able to rotate, but it would be suspended without direct physical contact with the surrounding housing so that there wouldnt be any friction. There will certainly be some industrial applications for this, and well keep our eyes open for when they hit the news. Quantum Levitation in Popular Culture While the initial YouTube video got a lot of play on television, one of the earliest popular culture appearances of real quantum levitation was on the November 9 episode of Stephen Colberts The Colbert Report, a Comedy Central satirical political pundit show. Colbert brought scientist Dr. Matthew C. Sullivan from the Ithaca College physics department. Colbert explained to his audience the science behind quantum levitation in this way: As Im sure you know, quantum levitation refers to the phenomenon whereby the magnetic flux lines flowing through a type-II superconductor are pinned in place despite the electromagnetic forces acting upon them. I learned that from the inside of a Snapple cap.He then proceeded to levitate a mini cup of his Stephen Colberts Americone Dream ice cream flavor. He was able to do thisÃ because they had placed a superconductor disk within the bottom of the ice cream cup. (Sorry to give up the ghost, Colbert. Thanks to Dr. Sullivan for speaking with us about the science behind this article!)
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Japan Earthquake and Tsunami 2011 - Term Paper Example Natural disasters account as a perfect example signifying the limitations of the human knowledge and control over the world. Scientists and researchers have tried to devise techniques to find out a solution to these occurrences but they have not achieved success in this field. A tragic natural disaster hit the country of Japan on the 11 march 2011. This tragic occurrence was analyzed to be the worst earthquake that had occurred in the history of the country and was highlighted to have set up alarms up till the United States and the South America. The earthquake was accompanied with a tsunami and resulted in a nuclear disaster in the country which was termed to have a higher severity than the Chernobyl nuclear event. These disasters not only hampered the infrastructure of the country but led to the displacement and deaths of thousands of people and resulted in great economic losses for the country (Japan Ã¢â¬â Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Crisis 2011). The earthquake in Japan ha s been ranked as the fifth most powerful earthquake of the world since the twentieth century. The earthquake was of the magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale. The earthquake had the highest severity in the northeastern part of Japan. Twenty four thousand people lost their lives or were missing following the earthquake. The tsunami, that resulted due to the earthquake, led to the destruction and drowning of complete villages in the northeastern part of the country. It was estimated that more than 3,400 buildings in the country had undergone destruction and damage. The power supply across the major cities was disrupted and people had to survive with no electricity and gas. Fires erupted across the areas that were hit mainly in the industrial locations as well as in places where there were oil reservoirs meant for storing the oil. The severity and strength of the earthquake did not settle and 100 minor earthquakes followed within a short period. The communication network across the are as that were hit was also disrupted. Immediately following the earthquake, it was understood by the nuclear experts that the tsunami that had resulted due to the earthquake had posed risk of damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The chaos that had resulted has not led to provide for a complete analysis of the situation. But owing to the risk, hundred thousands of people were moved from the areas that were close to the nuclear power plants to avoid the adverse effects that could have resulted due to the radiations from the power plants. The combined national organizations and the forces of the country set to work to save the people and move them to safer locations. These included the people from the fire department, police department as well as the armed forces of the country (Dawson et al 2011; Japan Ã¢â¬â Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Crisis 2011). The earthquake and the tsunami caused enough destruction and negative effects in Japan but the devastation in the country was aggravated by a nuclear breakdown and leakage that occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The nuclear power station had been affected by the tsunami as well as the earthquake. The day following the earthquake hit the country, there was a first blast reported from the nuclear power plant. This was accompanied by a second blast after three days. The